Mohammed A.S Khan, Ph.D.

Instructor in Investigation
Anesthesia, Critical Care and Pain Medicine, Mass General Research Institute
Instructor in Anaesthesia
Harvard Medical School
Research Staff
Anesthesia, Critical Care and Pain Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital
PhD Yamaguchi University 2000
amitriptyline; anesthetics, local; area under curve; bupivacaine; epinephrine Oxidative stress and apoptosis is associated with muscle wasting (atrophy) after muscle disuse (immobilization), denervation and burn injury or critical illness. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) that are generated because of oxidative stress may contribute to several kinds of post-translational modification, for instance carbonylation or phosphorylation of proteins and also induce apoptosis by triggering the cascade of apoptotic signaling. These changes can cause decrease in growth factor (insulin) signaling. Skeletal muscle is a major target of insulin action and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake is an important mechanism in the metabolic pathway. Understanding the signaling pathways and identifying the crucial proteins and genes that are responsible and contribute to disuse muscle atrophy is important in developing counter-measures to prevent this form of skeletal muscle wasting and preserve physiological function.